To be updated soon


A five year research was developed from 1987 to 1991 to study the eutrophication of Lake Varese, Italy. The research programme based on the cooperation between Politecnico di Milano, UniversitÓ degli Studi di Milano, I.R.S.A. - C.N.R. in Brugherio, JRC Euratom in Ispra. Marco Ragazzi's activity concerned two pilot scale experimentations to study the effects of a hypolimnetic oxygenation. Two plastic enclosures were used (D=16 m; H=15 m). In the same time both the water column and the sediment of the lake were monitored.

Another research concerned the eutrophication of the Venice Lagoon and was developed thanks to a cooperation between Politecnico di Milano, UniversitÓ di Cagliari, Istituto Rudjer Boskovic (Rovigno, Croatia), Consorzio Venezia Nuova. Marco Ragazzi studied the direct and indirect nutrient loads and possible interventions to decrease them.

Presently Marco Ragazzi belongs to a working group for the study of the eutrophication of Lake Serraia (Trento, Italy).


de Fraja Frangipane E., Bressi G., Ragazzi M.: Eutrophication in Italy: the Lake Varese case-study, Huangzhou, China, Sept. 1990.
Cossu R., Andreottola G., Ragazzi M., Casu G.: Direct and indirect domestic nutrient load evaluation by mathematical model: the Venice lagoon case-study, Science of the total Environment, Supplement, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. Amsterdam, 1992
Bressi G., Ragazzi M.: In-situ experiments on the recovery of eutrophic water bodies Int. Conf. IFAT 93 - Munich, Germany, May 1993
de Fraja Frangipane E., Ragazzi M.: Eutrophication in Italy: the Lake Varese case-study, EWPC, May 1996
de Fraja Frangipane E., Ragazzi M.: Strategies for Lake Varese recovery, EWPC, May 1996


In the frame of sewage treatments, Marco Ragazzi is working on the following topics:

a) small wastewater treatment plants;
b) moving bed biofilm reactors;
c) sequencing batch reactors;
d) readily biodegradable COD production from organic waste;
e) activated sludge optimisation.

A research concerning fixed biomass systems for small plants was achieved. The aim was the assessment of the efficiency of trickling filter systems vs. RBC systems for mountain refuge sewage treatment. Other researches has been developed referring to constructed wetlands.

A research on fixed biomass concerned the enhancement of activated sludge plants by suspended fixed biomass. A 80 m3 tank has been used. Another research concerned a pilot plant for the comparison of activated sludge and MBBR. Moreover, an upgrading of a full scale activated sludge plant is planned for summer 2000. These researches have been developed with the cooperation of the Provincia Autonoma di Trento.

A lab scale experimentation for SBR optimisation was developed in order to obtain a strategy for nutrient removal.

An additional branch concerns the use of RBCOD obtained from organic waste. Primary sludge hydrolysis and fermentation of MSW organic fraction were performed in pilot and lab scale. The sludge research was developed thanks to the cooperation between Politecnico di Milano, UniversitÓ degli Studi di Trento, ENEA and AGAC Reggio Emilia. The experimentation on OFMSW fermentation is in progress at the UniversitÓ degli Studi di Trento.

Two researches concerning activated sludge systems are in progress. The first one is an experimental analysis of the parameters affecting the oxygen transfer in fine bubble aeration systems; the second one concerns respirometry methods for the characterisation and the control of activated sludge systems.


Rozzi A., Bortone G., Canziani R., Andreottola G., Ragazzi M., Pugliese M., Tilche A.: Mesophilic and psychrophilic fermentation of primary sludge for RBCOD production in a Phostrip plant, Proc. Mediterraneachem - Int. Conf. Taranto Italy 1994
Canziani R., Pollice A., Ragazzi M.: Feasibility of using primary-sludge mesophilic hydrolysis for biological removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater, Bioresource Technology 54 255-260 1995
Malpei F., Pastorelli G., Ragazzi M.: Design and operation of in-soil treatment systems: a review, III Inter. Specialized Conf. on Design and Operation of Small Wastewater Treatment Plants for Tropical & Subtropical Regions, Kuala Lumpur Oct. 1995
Canziani R., Pollice A., Ragazzi M.: Design considerations on primary sludge hydrolysis under psychrophilic conditions, Environmental Technology, 7 17 1996
Andreottola G., Ragazzi M.: Experimental comparison between two fixed biomass systems for mountain refuges wastewater treatment IAWQ Conference: Small Wastewater Treatment Plants, UK April 1999 (accepted for publication on Wat.Sci. & Tech.)
Andreottola G., Foladori P., Ragazzi M., TatÓno F.: Experimental comparison between MBBR and activated sludge system for the treatment of municipal wastewater. IAWQ Conference on Biofilm Systems, NYC Oct. 1999 (accepted for publication on Wat.Sci. & Tech.)
Andreottola G., Ragazzi M., TatÓno F.: Full scale experimental evaluation of the oxygen transfer in lengthened ASTs. European Water Management, vol. 2, n. 5, October 1999 
Andreottola G., Foladori P., Ragazzi M.: On-line control of a SBR system for Nitrogen removal from industrial wastewater. Full paper accepted at the 2nd Int. Symposium on Sequencing Batch Reactor Technology, Narbonne (F), July 2000
Ziglio G., Andreottola G., Foladori P., Ragazzi M.: Experimentation validation of a Single-OUR method for wastewater RBCOD characterisation. Full paper accepted at the 1st World Congress of the IWA, Paris July 2000
Andreottola G., Dallago L., Foladori P., Ragazzi M.: COD removal in a MBBR system for municipal wastewater pre-treatment. Accepted as a reserve paper at the 1st World Congress of the IWA, Paris July 2000


Marco Ragazzi worked on the role of thermal treatment as sewage sludge treatment option. Emphasis was given to thermal drying. Technical and economical aspects were taken into account.


Andreottola G., Canziani R., Ragazzi M.: Thermal treatment of sewage sludge, ISWA Annual Conference, Jonkoping, Swede Sept. 1993
Andreottola G., Darriulat C., Ragazzi M.: Optimization of sludge thermal treatment at wastewater treatment plants Asian Water Technology Conference, Singapore 1994
Spinosa L., Ragazzi M.: Operation in Italy, in A global atlas of wastewater sludge/biosolids disposal and use explanation and programme, WEF/IAWQ/EWPCA, 1995
Ragazzi M.: Production, treatment and disposal of sludge in Italy, European Water Pollution Control 7 2 1997


Marco Ragazzi is working on the effect of the separate collection of putrescible organic fraction (OFMSW) on biological treatments, waste-to-energy plants, landfill disposal. Automatic sorting as a landfilling pretreatment was evaluated in a different work. An experimentation on the anaerobic digestion of OFMSW from separate collection is in progress. An additional research branch concerns the thermal disposal of MSW.


Giugliano M., Ghezzi U., Cernuschi S., Ragazzi M.: Innovation in the development of thermal disposal in Europe. IWM Int. Conf., Torbay, England, June 1994
Giugliano M., Lonati G., Ragazzi M., Pollice A.: Integrated management of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge: optimization criteria - ISWA Conf., Yokohama, Japan,1996
Ragazzi M., Andreottola G., Foladori P., Marcazzan G.: Multimaterial waste collection in Italy: an experimentation to set improvement criteria, accepted Poster at the ISWA 2000 Conference, July 2000, Paris
Baggio P., Ragazzi M., Andreottola G., Tovazzi M.: Critical comparison between MSW incineration and gasification: an Italian case-study. Full paper accepted at the ISWA 2000 Conference, July 2000, Paris


Marco Ragazzi participated in the working groups of two studies developed to assess the production of industrial waste in two Italian provinces (Cremona and Pavia). Results were published nationwide. A new method was proposed to assess the industrial waste production. An analysis was developed for the evaluation of the reliability of the most common assessment methods thanks to the availability of a multi-year database.

Andreottola G., Mattolin P., Ragazzi M.: A critical analysis of the estimation methodology of special waste production by specific per employee coefficient, accepted Poster at the ISWA 2000 Conference, July 2000, Paris